Date of publication: 2017-08-31 02:02
The type of ending an author chooses depends on his or her purpose. When the purpose is to entertain, endings may be happy or tragic, or a surprise ending may provide a twist. Endings can be circular, looping back to the beginning so readers end where they began, or they can leave the reader hanging, wishing for more. Endings can be deliberately ambiguous or ironic, designed to make the reader think, or they can explicitly state the moral of the story, telling the reader what to think. Strong endings for expository texts can summarize the highlights, restate the main points, or end with a final zinger statement to drive home the main point to the audience.
However, as this self-awareness became more complex and abstract, it developed beyond art’s capacities for expression. Consequently, art could no longer push forwards the development of Geist. This task fell to the more discursive and conceptually complex spheres of religion and philosophy (the most adequate expression occurring in – to the surprise of no one – Hegel’s own philosophy!). Art, as a means of eliciting progress in the task of articulating Geist and its self-consciousness, became superseded, and no longer of use in this task.
It appears, then, that films aimed only at the eye and the emotions cannot find large audiences. Experimental filmmakers can try out fascinating combinations of color, light, pulse, cutting, and sound (as Jordan Belsen did). They can even create works in which the actual cone of light from the projector was the work of art, and instruct the audience to stand where the screen would be (as Anthony McCall has done). But their nonnarrative works play in museums and galleries and on the campus commercial feature filmmaking and its audience seem as committed as ever to good stories, well told.
But now came an awareness that directors might be making their films to explore personal concerns, to create a movie as personally as a novelist was understood to write a book. The first directors widely understood to function in this way came from Europe. Bergman had his annual battles with his three great themes (the death of God, the silence of the artist, and the agony of the couple). The Italian Neo-Realists cried out against social injustice. The British kitchen sink dramatists and Angry Men turned to film a decade later to do the same. Fellini luxuriated in his wonderfully orchestrated processions of desire, nostalgia, and decadence. And then there was the New Wave.
That is apparently what happens. The two women enjoy a quiet existence together for at time, picking berries, sorting mushrooms, taking walks on the beach. But eventually the silence of the actress draws the nurse into more and more compulsive conversation, including a long monologue in which she describes a youthful sexual encounter on a beach. The actress breaks the confidence by describing the anecdote in a letter to her husband—a letter perhaps deliberately left unsealed. When the nurse reads the letter, she feels so angry and betrayed that she deliberately leaves a piece of glass where the actress will step on it.
It's a measure of how completely the Internet has transformed communication that I need to explain, for the benefit of some readers, what encyclopedias were: bound editions summing up all available knowledge, delivered to one's home in handsome bound editions. The "Great Books" series zeroed in on books about history, poetry, natural science, math and other fields of study the "Great Ideas" series was meant to tie all the ideas together, and that was the mission given to Roger when he undertook this piece about film.
That is very certainly not the case with "Three Women." The locations are few and almost reluctantly admitted into the film. There is the health spa, the parking lot outside of it, a sort of singles residential motel with a pool, a bar with a Western motif and a shooting range and motorcycle cross-country track behind it, a bus station, and a hospital room nothing more. One striking shot, well into the film, mounts the camera on the hood of Shelley Duvall’s car and then, as the car drives through the desert, almost insolently pans from horizon to horizon to show that nothing more is there. These are dream landscapes and locations, and the two women have no firm place in them (they are rudely ignored by their fellow workers at the spa—and most especially by the twin sisters).
These advancements were binding on those who came after – for example, Masaccio’s work with Brunelleschi’s advances in understanding perspective set the tone for the painters who followed, who took up and improved these techniques and generated their own skills and technologies. The camera obscura was later a key technological advancement, in allowing rudimentary reference photographs to be taken (or so the artist David Hockney claims, with growing agreement, based on features of paintings such as Vermeer’s The Music Lesson ).
If you want to highlight a particular character trait in your viewpoint character or focus on something specific that the characters are talking about, you don 8767 t want the scene cluttered, the reader distracted or the pace slowed by action or narrative. You know how sometimes when someone is telling you a story, the setting, the other people around you, everything just kind of fades away, and you 8767 re intent only on what the other person is saying? This is what it 8767 s like when you cut away action and narrative and leave only your characters 8767 spoken words.
Boulder, Colorado is a picturesque city located at the base of the Rocky Mountains. It is surrounded by miles of open space, purchased by the city at considerable taxpayer expense. While the Boulder citizenry has long supported the purchase and maintenance of open space land, there are many differing opinions about how it should be used. Some see it primarily as a recreational resource: they want to hike, bike, run, and observe nature in the wild foothill areas. Others see it as a buffer against further development. Still others want it to be closed to public use so it can be protected habitat for other species. These differences have led to serious difficulties for the Open Space Department.
As you can see, this passage is very effective without a bunch of narrative bogging down the moment. The dialogue here shows Dolores 8767 true attitude toward Petey, but more important, it demonstrates her feelings toward her mother. This is dialogue at its most powerful. It can take the protagonist pages to tell us something in narrative, whereas a scene of dialogue can quickly show us through that character 8767 s own words said out loud. Narrative explains, and dialogue blurts out.
STRIKING A BALANCE
There are no hard-and-fast rules about when and when not to blend dialogue, action and narrative. To weave them together well is to find your story 8767 s rhythm. But there are a few questions you can ask yourself about your story, especially in the rewrite stage, that can help you know which elements are most effective for a particular scene, and which might be better used elsewhere.